It highlights Native people’s role in trying to extricate themselves from this trade which had been so detrimental to their societies. The lesson introduces students to two texts written by Native American authors that offer a different perspective on the Thanksgiving story than … ... A long list of Native American lessons and units from Mr. Donn's site. So at that point they and most other English colonies on the Eastern Seaboard increasingly turn to African slavery. Broken Promises: Continuing Federal Funding Shortfall for Native Americans U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2018 Honoring Our Teachers 2017 Monograph Full Text Arizona State Indian Education Report 2014-2019 Rewriting History--for the Better David Constantin, Teaching Tolerance, Fall 2015 Hasan K. Jeffries: Could you tell us a little bit about yourself so our listeners can get to know you a little bit? Stereotyping is a problem for many communities. So essentially if we look at these different colonizing powers, they too have their own cultures and histories, but they’re beginning to form a more coherent ideology that justifies bondage. All of the other remaining settlers and enslaved people are forced into fortified Charleston for most of the remainder of the war. All of these people, they had quite different cultures, histories and politics. Rather than working with Native people or trying to include them somehow in the colonial project, settler colonialism really sought to either destroy them or displace them to somewhere else, so that colonizers, these new settlers, could claim these Indigenous spaces for themselves indefinitely. This idea that Indigenous peoples only have a right to occupancy and not a right to these territories that we’ve been stewarding and care-taking since time immemorial. Teaching Tolerance also offers other teaching resources to help promote understanding of the Native American experience. Helping teachers in schools prepare their students to be active participants in a diverse democracy. What happens is that these traders, in order to satisfy those debts, start to kidnap Yamasees or people that the Yamasees wanted to adopt, so that is captives who had maybe been taken from elsewhere, but that the Yamasees want to incorporate into their own society. We should be thinking about the starting point for slavery in the Americas, if you will, at a totally different moment in time. Hasan K. Jeffries: Our theme song is “Different Heroes” by A Tribe Called Red featuring Northern Voice, who graciously let us use it for this series. Music chronicles the history of the civil rights … Search Teaching ToleranceSearch. Christina Snyder: Something interesting that I’ve done with my class in order to really get students to wrap their heads around this is to have them read a version of the Requerimiento, which is a legal document that the Spanish came up with, I think in the 15 teens. These allies have varying roles in the war. They had horses, which Indigenous people had never seen before. It might be interesting for you to also speak to the relationship between Christianity and European understandings of human dignity, particularly given what you were just discussing about understandings of Christianity in religious wars. Teaching Tolerance Classroom Resources (Southern Poverty Law Center) The National Museum of African American History and Culture (Smithsonian) Native American Studies Resources. They’re more familiar with servitude and slavery. Exploring how African and Indigenous nations would have been different, were it not for slavery and colonialism, is a useful intellectual undertaking. So Native people are essentially being kidnapped and sold as slaves in Europe, in the Caribbean. Native Americans of New England: Key Concepts For Teaching Native American Histories Websites That trade continues in much diminished fashion, but it’s never the same after that. For example, the mission system would be one form of colonialism that has to do with converting Indigenous people and assimilating them into a Europeanized, Christianized lifestyle. Native people are still being marginalized. These invaders and settlers brought established principles and practices of human enslavement with them, along with their insatiable desire for free labor. McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University. There were basically three different things that could happen to a captive. To do some sort of mapping where they’re looking at, what are these power dynamics? They are trying to protect. As you gather books and other resources about native peoples, consider how these texts can be used in lesson plans. The first really is that Native nations decide that they’re no longer willing to engage in the Indian slave trade with European colonists. But I wouldn’t be here today, Indigenous peoples wouldn’t be here today, if it weren’t for the resilience, the creativity and the resistance of our ancestors. So these processes are actually much longer. The Yamasees become very much in debt to these traders. Welcome to Lessons of Our Land, an innovative curriculum that enables Pre-K through grade 12 teachers to easily incorporate Native American stories, lessons and games into regular classroom instruction. But there is also a lot of effort on the part of Indigenous people to turn Europeans into allies because sometimes Indigenous leaders thought they would be useful trade partners. Teaching the Native Perspective: Lessons. for Educators and Families. Hernando de Soto and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, they go on similar kinds of expeditions in the late 1530s, early 1540s, and they kidnap hundreds of Indigenous people, mostly women. So they’re just massively, massively in debt to these traders who are extending them goods on loan. Meredith McCoy: There is so much history to cover. Here are some resources that can help deconstruct these and other stereotypes: • Stereotypes and Tonto – This lesson from Teaching Tolerance, for grade… They’re facing severe land loss, severe population devastation, and in order to make sure that their people survive, they’re having to shift their understandings of what enslavement means and how they participate in this very capitalistic notion of enslavement that Europeans are bringing with them. There does develop, though, a trade in Indian slaves. Hasan K. Jeffries: Meredith, obviously this is 2019 and we have been commemorating the 400th anniversary of the arrival of enslaved Africans to the Virginia colony, British North America. So, those rates are really horrific, and they give us a sense of this violent synergy that’s creating a really unstable region and is also having really negative effects on the Indigenous populations of that region. But in the West, the impact is really perhaps minimal or zero. In a lesson plan from Teaching Tolerance, for example, a text by writer and activist Jacqueline Keeler is used to tell the story of Thanksgiving. She calls it the “shatter zone.”. The Iroquois have a term for this, which is “the mourning wars.” Mourning, not as in the time of day but as in mourning a relative for death. They’re becoming embroiled in imperial conflicts, in global trade. So basically the idea of someone who has not been incorporated into a kinship network, that person is permanently an outsider and they’re thought of as being kinless. It’s about social reproduction, it’s about warfare and justice. That this is not something that is just relegated to the past, but that the legal tenants and the social dynamics that were established through the Indigenous slave trade continue to impact Indigenous peoples today. As Native American Heritage Month comes to a close, be sure to continue incorporating this history in your curriculum and support Native American students year-round. When it comes to Native American history and culture, many textbooks are light on relevant content. Those Christian kingdoms eventually become what we now think of as Spain. They even enlist African-American slaves and some Indian allies. That, to me, is a takeaway that teachers can use to frame these changes in Indigenous population, in the slave trade over time with their students. Writer and historian Bernard DeVoto observed more than 50 years ago that a dismaying amount of American history has been written without regards to the Indians. They believe that the only way to really gain a foothold in this global market to gain access to firearms is to engage in the Indian slave trade. Actually, 200 of them died on the voyage, which was overcrowded, many people were ill, but of the survivors, he sold them in Spain. But first, we’re going to meet Doctor Meredith McCoy. So you can see both the economic pull of this, but also that desire for security, in a really violent and changing world. They had armor. Meredith McCoy: Teaching Hard History is a podcast from Teaching Tolerance, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. Many of them also join attacks against South Carolina plantations. Following the Yamasee War, British colonists really increasingly associate slavery with blackness. To continue, log into your Teaching Tolerance account. Apple Podcasts | Google Music | Spotify | RSS | Help, Christina Snyder Teaching Tolerance offers free resources to educators who work with children from kindergarten through high school. Discovering Lewis and Clark Of course, you can see that with Columbus, but as early as the 1520s, Spanish ships started terrorizing Indigenous communities on the Atlantic Seaboard and in Florida. Meredith McCoy: Christina, what are some common misconceptions that you think people might have to undo as they think about integrating this new content into their classrooms? So we think, these numbers are very hard to pin down. Use these resources to help students contextualize the true history and contemporary issues of Native peoples. You can also find these online @tolerance.org\hardhistory. These kinds of moments and activities in our classrooms allow students to see war and conflict, not in a vacuum, but as a social phenomena that really changes the course of events. So they engaged quite eagerly in this. One thing to immediately come to terms with is that labor is a scarce resource in colonial North America and colonialism is fundamentally about money. She’s going to share with us her conversation with Doctor Snyder. Where is it that you chose to begin this discussion? Teaching Tolerance has a broad set of resources, toolkits, and professional development that can support corps members and alumni interested in advancing safe classrooms. So we cannot understand the history of American slavery separate from the United States as a settler colonial entity. So it’s not just diseases. So they were desperate to gain access to laborers and especially eager to get bonded laborers who could be enslaved for life. Hasan K. Jeffries: When opening day finally arrived, my girls and I headed to the movies. So they’re joined by Lower Creeks, Savannahs and Apalachees, and to a lesser extent by Upper Creeks, Choctaws and Cherokees. Where was it going to get those resources? Even though it’s not entirely effective. It’s interesting, even if you have a student who is fluent in Spanish, to have them read the document in Spanish to the rest of the class who maybe can’t understand it. That really stands out. One of the things that we really have to remember is that for most of the colonial period, and certainly west of the Mississippi, Indigenous peoples are still in control. Europeans are coming in and they’re certainly disrupting dynamics, especially in what come to be known as the colonies, but Indigenous peoples largely are still able to maintain pre-existing relationships with each other and relationships with their lands. A Culturally Responsive Approach to Discussing Thanksgiving in The Classroom - Linday Barrett; Decolonizing Thanksgiving: A Toolkit for Combatting Racism in Schools - Lindsey Passenger Wieck; Teaching about Thanksgiving - LearnNC (UNC School … In this way, they can see the multifacetedness of the war itself and they can see both what leads up to it and how it then reverberates into other historical events that come after. At the same time, the war itself doesn’t actually liberate Indian people who are already in slavery. The Yamasee War is such an important historical pivot. Enjoy. The mission system can be really repressive. The framework also includes guidance for teaching about the enslavement of … When they’re engaging in these wars during the Reconquista, they employ ideas based on what they thought of, as a quote, “just war.”. The fur trade is another one, which is primarily with the goal of extracting these animal resources from indigenous environments. The war itself takes place between 1715 and 1718. A Racial Justice Guide to Thanksgiving . This has to be unpacked first if we are to understand the origin and evolution of American slavery. One of the big ideas that Doctor Snyder has researched is that Indigenous peoples had certain ideas about bondage and captivity that predate the invasion of Europeans. A lot of the resources that exist, if you Google “classroom resources to teach warfare,” think about the world wars, or they think about Vietnam, or they think about the present wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, but there are not a lot of resources out there for thinking about how to teach histories of early colonial Indian wars in a K–12 context. It was really about addressing a balance that had been lost through a relative who had been killed. Hasan K. Jeffries: I’m so glad that you and Doctor Snyder talked about this concept of settler colonialism because it’s so important to understanding what would become the United States, these American colonies, how they evolve over time. If we don’t understand that relationship, I don’t think our students will understand the impact that slavery and these colonies will have on Indigenous people going forward. Hasan K. Jeffries: I’m Doctor Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Associate Professor of History at The Ohio State University. So first and foremost it’s about surviving. Meredith McCoy: Absolutely. But I did at least wear my Lowndes County Freedom Organization hoodie, which is emblazoned with a snarling black panther, the logo of the original Black Panther party. It wasn’t part of my development and my master’s in education, it wasn’t part of my standards or textbooks in Tennessee or Georgia, and it also was not part of the education I received as a student myself, growing up in North Carolina. So, I asked Christina just what the impact of the Yamasee War was in terms of racialization and enslavement. Bryan Fischer, the director of issue analysis for government and public policy at the American Family Association (AFA), has expanded his astounding bigotry to include not just Muslims and LGBT people, but Native Americans as well.. Teaching Tolerance puts the figure at 500 tribes totaling about 22 million people. Around the same time as the Yamasee War, New England, a few decades earlier, had experienced King Philip’s war, which is also partially about the enslavement of Indigenous people in New Mexico. Kate Shuster is our executive producer. You can find us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Subscribe, share and see past Moments using these options. In early December 2016, Teaching Tolerance contracted with Survey USA, a highly rated national polling firm, to conduct an online survey of 1,000 American high school seniors. What is this looking like in terms of how communities, exactly as you’re saying, initially attempt to incorporate these newcomers as guests, or visitors, or relatives, and then eventually as a tool for their own survival become complicit in these systems of violence against other people? Never miss a Moment. A widely held tenant was that captivity was a kind of substitute for death in warfare. That life for nations and people touched by slavery and colonialism was forever and irrevocably changed. We chose seniors because they have completed nearly 12 years of education, including U.S. history, which is mostly taken in the junior or sophomore years of high school. Furthermore, the Teaching Tolerance writer chided Americans for worrying about the reputational damage done to Sandmann. I’m really glad that you brought up this idea of kinship because kinship continues to be such a fundamental concept for how Indigenous peoples identify each other as belonging today. So the Northeast, the Southeast, the Southwest. Meredith McCoy: I am thrilled today to welcome Christina Snyder. What we have to understand about this and what makes it so important in Indigenous societies is that kinship was really the organizing principle of creating Native societies. I will say that something very interesting does happen around this time of the Yamasee War. Talking with students about slavery can be emotional and complex. But then how quickly the tide seems to turn, not just impacting individuals, but how, for example, the nature of warfare begins to change. Teaching Tolerance is dedicated to reducing prejudice, improving intergroup relations and supporting equitable school experiences for … Obviously, Europeans had a lot of new goods and interesting things to trade, or they saw these invading armies of mostly men very well armed. So that non-Christian combatants could be enslaved during these religious wars. Obviously the Atlantic slave trade didn’t begin in 16 and 19, but you’re talking about 130 years of a system having developed. Christina Snyder: One thing that we have to understand first is that Native North America is incredibly diverse on the eve of colonization. I’ll see you on the other side. A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center ©1991-2020. That this is about how Indigenous peoples adopt technologies and systems that they believe will provide them with the resources, or the strategies that they need to protect their peoples, and their lands over time facing this severe threat from European invasion. Meredith McCoy: That has so many ripple effects out across Indian law. Europeans are already interested in acquiring forced labor to begin plantations to start other kinds of economic endeavors. So part of this change is how European understandings of the commodification of human beings as laborers interface with Indigenous understandings of captives as part of a mechanism to repair a broken social fabric after warfare or after death. So that’s extremely significant. The Yamasee War destroys the plantation economy of the Carolina back country. The first is by taking them directly. To compensate for that loss to your people, it was necessary to enact justice. We do have an estimate from one French colonial official in Louisiana, around 1700, who estimated that for every captive taken alive, three people died resisting that invasion. Meredith McCoy: Yeah. Christina Snyder: Many Indigenous nations actually do try to maintain traditional ideas as much as they can in terms of how native people are engaging with the warfare around them. This is of course impossible to know because slavery and colonialism lasted for centuries and reach deep into the interior of Africa and the Americas. But as a result of that, we have this sort of “If we can enslave you, we will enslave you” system or attitude going on. But these were rich thought experiments because rarely do people think in such public and communal ways about the deep and lasting impact of slavery and colonialism and how these systems forced African and Indigenous nations and people to react and respond. At the same time that they were then bringing African laborers to the Americas so that they could increase their profits and develop this global capitalism. European gun manufacturers actually start to mass-produce these for an American market and primarily for Native American people who want to use these. They could be exploited in certain ways so they could be used as laborers, as servants. Meredith McCoy: So much of what we’re asked to teach as teachers is divided into historical periods. From: Teaching Tolerance magazine Number 29, Spring 2006 Transforming Teaching and Learning about Native Americans from the National Museum of the American Indian Kids’ Books That Share True Stories of Native Peoples from Parent Map Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way from Teaching Tolerance Teaching Culturally Sensitive Holidays – Sherry Posnick-Goodwin (California Teachers Associations) Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way – Teaching Tolerance; Teaching Thanksgiving from the Perspective of Native Americans – Christina “Krea” Gomez ; Lesson Plans/ Study Guides. One is that that person could be executed as vengeance for the death of a loved one. But what we’re talking about is that what we might consider slavery or forced bondage in an Indigenous context and what will emerge in the Americas under these colonizers is something completely different. 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