The principle of collective defence is at the very heart of NATO’s founding treaty. This is an individual obligation on each Ally and each Ally is responsible for determining what it deems necessary in the particular circumstances. "If you are standing at a ceremony talking about the invocation of Article 5 after 9/11 and talking about that, that is a pretty clear indication of the support that exists for it," Spicer said. The date was October 4, 2001. The North Atlantic Council – NATO’s principal political decision-making body – agreed that if it determined that the attack was directed from abroad against the United States, it would be regarded as an action covered by Article 5. Article 5 states that if one NATO ally is the victim of an armed attack, it will be considered an act of violence against all of NATO. In NATO's 71-year history, the U.S. is still the only treaty signatory ever to invoke Article 5, which states that members must consider an armed attack against one ally to be an attack on all. There was an "if" in the September 12 resolution. NATO planes helped cover NA airspace and Canada, Germany and the UK have worked in Afghanistan. “We launched NATO’s biggest military operation ever in Afghanistan,” he said. The United States can also carry out independent actions, consistent with its rights and obligations under the UN Charter. Article 5 has only been invoked once in NATO’s 66-year history. The American People Are Skeptical of NATO, Too. The entire NATO arsenal was already on a war footing. The Alliance determined that the US had been the object of an armed attack. Article 5 would apply only if it is determined that Afghanistan as a Nation State was complicit or behind the 9/11 attacks. It consisted in seven NATO AWACS radar aircraft that helped patrol the skies over the United States; in total 830 crew members from 13 NATO countries flew over 360 sorties. Article 5 is at the basis of a fundamental principle of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. If such a determination is made, each Ally will then consider what assistance it should provide. The Alliance therefore agreed that if it was determined that this attack was directed from abroad, it would be regarded as covered by Article 5. Documents on Canadian External Relations, Vol. Archives. The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. What is Article 5 of NATO’s Founding Treaty? NATO has a number of standing forces on active duty that contribute to the Alliance’s collective defence efforts on a permanent basis. It is therefore left to the judgment of each individual member country to determine how it will contribute. The eight measures to support the United States, as agreed by NATO were: On the request of Turkey, on three occasions, NATO has put collective defence measures in place: in 1991 with the deployment of Patriot missiles during the Gulf War, in 2003 with the agreement on a package of defensive measures and conduct of Operation Display Deterrence during the crisis in Iraq, and in 2012 in response to the situation in Syria with the deployment of Patriot missiles. Ambassador Hutchison’s Remarks to Commemorate the September 11 Attacks at the 9/11 and Article 5 Memorial – NATO HQ Wednesday, September 11, 2019 Good afternoon. "Yes, absolutely I would be committed to Article 5," he said at the time. Small Wars Journal is published by Small Wars Foundation - a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation. With the invocation of Article 5, Allies can provide any form of assistance they deem necessary to respond to a situation. "I am somehat perplexed when you’re at a ceremony that is centered around Article 5 people [that] could expect to … Then NATO Secretary General Lord Robertson subsequently informed the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the Alliance's decision. Article 5 states that an attack on one alliance nation is considered as an attack on all. It is not necessarily military and depends on the material resources of each country. NATO has also increased its presence in the southeast of the Alliance, centred on a multinational brigade in Romania. And Andrea, thank you very much indeed. It commits each member state to consider an armed attack against one member state, in Europe or North America, to be an armed attack against them all. “The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. to enhance intelligence-sharing and cooperation, both bilaterally and in appropriate NATO bodies, relating to the threats posed by terrorism and the actions to be taken against it; to provide, individually or collectively, as appropriate and according to their capabilities, assistance to Allies and other countries which are or may be subject to increased terrorist threats as a result of their support for the campaign against terrorism; to take necessary measures to provide increased security for facilities of the United States and other Allies on their territory; to backfill selected Allied assets in NATO’s area of responsibility that are required to directly support operations against terrorism; to provide blanket overflight clearances for the United States and other Allies’ aircraft, in accordance with the necessary air traffic arrangements and national procedures, for military flights related to operations against terrorism; to provide access for the United States and other Allies to ports and airfields on the territory of NATO member countries for operations against terrorism, including for refuelling, in accordance with national procedures; that the Alliance is ready to deploy elements of its Standing Naval Forces to the Eastern Mediterranean in order to provide a NATO presence and demonstrate resolve; that the Alliance is similarly ready to deploy elements of its NATO Airborne Early Warning Force to support operations against terrorism. 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